Trade fairs often involve a considerable marketing investment by participating companies. Costs include space rental, booth design and construction of trade show displays, telecommunications and networking, travel, accommodations, and promotional literature and items to give to attendees. In addition, costs are incurred at the show for services such as electrical, booth cleaning, internet services, and drayage (also known as material handling). Consequently, cities often promote trade shows as a means of economic development. Preparation and follow-up require considerable time that also has to be invested.[3]

Trade fairs often involve a considerable marketing investment by participating companies. Costs include space rental, booth design and construction of trade show displays, telecommunications and networking, travel, accommodations, and promotional literature and items to give to attendees. In addition, costs are incurred at the show for services such as electrical, booth cleaning, internet services, and drayage (also known as material handling). Consequently, cities often promote trade shows as a means of economic development. Preparation and follow-up require considerable time that also has to be invested.[3]


另一个例子是美国市场的Netflix和blockbuster。2004年左右的时候,blockbuster和Netflix在DVD 租赁市场上竞争的非常激烈。Netflix提供很多品类的DVD租赁,同时,Netflix网站也会根据用户的喜好,给用户推荐那些票房表现不好但非常适合该用户的影片。这一策略收到了很好的效果。为了和Netflix竞争,blockbuster依赖于自己品类多的优势,开始对自己的服务降价,并在DVD送达服务上力争匹配竞争对手Netflix。同一时期,Walmart也认为自己具有品类和快速送达的优势,也开始涉足DVD租赁服务。这些瞄准竞争对手当前最佳实践的战略,最后都失败了。因为在接下来的几年,netflix将自己的优势统统建立在流媒体播放( streaming)业务,以及能够深度了解用户的推荐引擎上面。 <
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